If you’ve not read the day 1 summary then you can find that here.
Day 2 had a new host for track A in the form of David D’Souza from CIPD. His opening remarks quoted Asimov and Crichton and encouraging us not be magicians and to step back and think about what we should do rather than just what we could. Continue reading AI Congress London 2018 Day 2
London is a hive of AI activity. The UK is positioning itself as a leader in AI technology and you can barely walk around London without passing an AI company or meetup or training course1. If I didn’t actually have a day job, I could fill my time with AI conferences without actually doing much more than my daily commute. That said I am quite picky about the ones I go to. I’d never been to the AI Congress before and liked the diverse set of speakers and topics. I was lucky that the team at Logikk had invited me as their guest for the two days. So how did it stack up? Well, day 1 was at a much higher level than some of the other conferences I’ve been to, with a lot of implementation and enterprise discussions and far fewer talks on the technical implementations. If you’re senior then these conferences are for you. If you want someone to talk about their latest paper on arxiv then there are far more technical events that will suit you better.
One of the biggest problems I had was that there were three separate tracks and only one of me, so if I didn’t make notes on a particular talk then hopefully the slides will be available after the event at some point. I missed some of the high profile talks, in preference of other speakers, on purpose as I’d already heard those speakers at other events. Continue reading AI Congress London 2018 Day 1
I’ve taken longer than I normally would to respond to some recent news stories about AI “outperforming humans” in reading comprehension “for the first time”. Partly because I can’t help the wave of annoyance that fills me when I see articles so obviously designed to instil panic and/or awe in the reader without any detail, but also because I feel it’s important to do some primary research before refuting anything1. The initial story broke that an AI created by Alibaba had met2 the human threshold in the Stanford Question Answering Dataset (SQuAD) followed closely by Microsoft outperforming Alibaba and exceeding the human score (slightly). Always a safe bet for sensationalism, mainstream media pounced on the results to announce millions of jobs are at risk…. So what’s really going on? Continue reading AI better than humans at reading?
I love the fact that here in the UK everyone can be involved in shaping the future of our country, even if a large number of individuals choose not to and, in my eyes, if you don’t get involved then you don’t have the right to complain. While this is most generally applied to the election of our representatives from local parish councils to our regional MPs (or actually standing yourself)1 there are also a lot of other ways to be involved. In addition to raising issues with your local representative, parliament has cross bench committees that seek input from the public and to help create policy or consider draft legislation.
Our elected parliament is not made up of individuals who are experts in all fields. Even government departments are not necessarily headed by individuals with large amounts of relevant experience. It is critical that these individuals are informed by those with the experience and expertise in the issues that are being considered. Without this critical input, our democracy is weakened. Continue reading Submitting evidence to parliament committees
Yesterday I had the great pleasure in being part of the global WiDS2017 event show casing women in all aspects of data science. The main conference was held at Stanford but over 75 locations world wide had rebroadcasts and local events, of which Reading was one. In addition to spending a great evening with some amazing women, I was asked to speak in the career panel on my experiences and overall journey. Continue reading WiDS2017: Women in Data Science Reading
In September 2016, the ReWork team organised another deep learning conference in London. This is the third of their conferences I have attended and each time they continue to be a fantastic cross section of academia, enterprise research and start-ups. As usual, I took a large amount of notes on both days and I’ll be putting these up as separate posts, this one covers the morning of day 1. For reference, the notes from previous events can be found here: Boston 2015, Boston 2016.
Day one began with a brief introduction from Neil Lawrence, who has just moved from the University of Sheffield to Amazon research in Cambridge. Rather strangely, his introduction finished with him introducing himself, which we all found funny. His talk was titled the “Data Delusion” and started with a brief history of how digital data has exploded. By 2002, SVM papers dominated NIPs, but there wasn’t the level of data to make these systems work. There was a great analogy with the steam engine, originally invented by Thomas Newcomen in 1712 for pumping out tin mines, but it was hugely inefficient due to the amount of coal required. James Watt took the design and improved on it by adding the condenser, which (in combination with efficient coal distribution) led to the industrial revolution1. Machine learning now needs its “condenser” moment.
We’re all starting to get a bit blasé about self driving cars now. They were a novelty when they first came out, but even if the vast majority of us have never seen one, let alone been in one, we know they’re there and they work1 and that they are getting better with each iteration (which is phenomenally fast). But after watching the formula 1 racing, it’s a big step from a 30mph trundle around a city to over 200mph racing around a track with other cars. Or is it? Continue reading Formula AI – driverless racing
As part of a few hours catching up on machine learning conference videos, I found this great talk on what can go wrong with machine recommendations and how testing can be improved. Evan gives some great examples of where the algorithms can give unintended outputs. In some cases this is an emergent property of correlations in the data, and in others, it’s down to missing examples in the test set. While the talk is entertaining and shows some very important examples, it made me realise something that has been missing. The machine learning community, having grown out of academia, does not have the same rigour of developmental processes as standard software development.
Regardless of the type of machine learning employed, testing and quantification of results is all down to the test set that is used. Accuracy against the test set, simpler architectures, fewer training examples are the focal points. If the test set is lacking, this is not uncovered as part of the process. Models that show high precision and recall can often fail when “real” data is passed through them. Sometimes in spectacular ways as outlined in Evan’s talk: adjusting pricing for Mac users, Amazon recommending inappropriate products or Facebook’s misclassification of people. These problems are either solved with manual hacks after the algorithms have run or by adding specific issues to the test set. While there are businesses that take the same approach with their software, they are thankfully few and far between and most companies now use some form of continuous integration, automated testing and then rigorous manual testing.
The only part of this process that will truly solve the problem is the addition of rigorous manual testing by professional testers. Good testers are very hard to find, in some respect harder than it is to find good developers. Testing is often seen as a second class profession to development and I feel this is really unfair. Good testers can understand the application they are testing on multiple levels, create the automated functional tests and make sure that everything you expect to work, works. But they also know how to stress an application – push it well beyond what it was designed to do, just to see whether these cases will be handled. What assumptions were made that can be challenged. A really good tester will see deficiencies in test sets and think “what happens if…”, they’ll sneak the bizarre examples in for the challenge.
One of the most difficult things about being a tester in the machine learning space is that in order to understand all the ways in which things can go wrong, you do need some appreciation of how the underlying system works, rather than a complete black box. Knowing that most vision networks look for edges would prompt a good tester to throw in random patterns, from animal prints to static noise. A good tester would look of examples not covered by the test set and make sure the negatives far outweigh the samples the developers used to create the model.
So where are all the specialist testers for machine learning? I think the industry really needs them before we have (any more) decision engines in our lives that have hidden issues waiting to emerge…
Following my post on AI for understanding ambiguity, I got into a discussion with a friend covering the limitations of AI if we only try to emulate ourselves. His premise was that we know so little about how our brains actually enable us to have our rich independent thoughts that if we constrain AI to what we observe, an ability to converse in our native language and perform tasks that we can do with higher precision, then we will completely limit their potential. I had a similar conversation in the summer of 2015 while at the start-up company I joined1– we spent a whole day2 discussing whether in 100 years’ time the only jobs that humans would do would be to code the robots. While the technological revolution is changing how we live and work, and yes it will remove some jobs and create others just like the industrial revolution did and ongoing machine automation has been doing, there will always be a rich variety of new roles that require our unique skills and imagination, our ability to adapt and look beyond what we know. Continue reading Evolving Machines